The classical historian Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903) published his History of Rome between 1854 and 1856. His work was received with widespread acclaim by the scholarly community and the reading public. In 1902, in recognition of this monumental work, Mommsen was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and acclaimed as 'the greatest living master of the art of historical writing'. Mommsen rejected traditional Enlightenment accounts, which glorified ancient Rome; instead, guided by a new and rigorous criticism of sources, he began the demythologisation of Roman history. In a vivacious and engaging style, using modern terms to express classical ideas, Mommsen drew bold parallels between the nineteenth century and classical Rome. Volume 1 begins with Rome's earliest origins and ends with the unification of Italy; it contains separate chapters on religion, law and justice, art, and writing. This 1862 translation is based on the German third edition (1861).