This volume outlines the general principles of Learning Oriented Assessment (LOA), placing it in the context of European language learning policy. The authors pose three key questions central to LOA: 'What is learning?' , 'What is to be learned?' and 'What is to be assessed?'. It focuses on the use of evidence, and how it can be collected and used to feed back into learning, overviews large-scale assessment as practised by Cambridge English and learning-oriented classroom assessment practices, and concludes with a look at implementing LOA in practice. With fresh insights into the role of assessment in supporting learning, this volume will be of considerable interest to assessment practitioners, teachers and academics, educational policy-makers and examination board personnel.