Before 2000, roughly 96% of China’s energy demands were met domestically. Since 2001, however, this position of near self-reliance has changed. With steadily increasing demands, China’s need for foreign energy has grown. Today, China is the world’s biggest energy consumer and emitter of greenhouse gases. Building upon the first volume, which examined China’s energy plans, this book will examine the strategies China has taken to meet its burgeoning energy demands, continue its fast-paced economic growth and also address the mounting concerns about environmental welfare and the true cost of China’s development. With new chapters addressing international agreements, the so-called “China energy threat” and the Belt and Road Initiative, this volume will continue to discuss and interpret both domestic policies and China’s international role.