The Knowledge Illusion: Why We Never Think Alone

The Knowledge Illusion: Why We Never Think Alone

作者 : Steven Sloman/ Philip Fernbach

出版社 : PAN MACMILLAN

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定價 : NT 599

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內容簡介


認知科學家揭開知識的假象
每個人可能都比自己所認為的還要無知


你知道怎麼使用拉鍊,但你能完整說明拉鍊的運作原理嗎?
你知道地球繞著太陽公轉,但你有辦法演算得出此結論的天文觀測與計算嗎?
你知道吸菸會致癌,但你能說出是什麼樣的氣體會傷害細胞、還有癌症是如何形成的嗎?

這是科學家所稱之為「說明深度的假象」(illusion of explanatory depth):我們往往對於日常生活事物背後的複雜理論或運作邏輯一知半解。人們總認為自己十分了解這個世界,事實上,當他們被要求試著說明特定概念時,才發現自信只不過是假象。知識的共享性,常讓人誤認為個人所知較實際上更多,實則不然;相對而言,智慧的總合讓人類得以達成不可能,不管是創建民主制度、登陸月球,或是完成基因組定序。人類個體並不完美,但集合眾人智慧將導向意想不到的結果!

人類因為無知與思考缺失,而相信謊言或荒謬的事物,這也是政治觀點與錯誤信念往往難以改變的原因。然而,集體智慧的重要性不可忽略。無知為人類的天性,但認清自身知識的貧乏與有限性,並集合眾人的專業知識,將能創造單憑個人無法達成的不可能!

Human reasoning is remarkably shallow - in fact, our thinking and justifications just scratch the surface of the true complexity of the issues we deal with. The ability to think may still be the greatest wonder in the world (and beyond), but the way that individuals think is less than ideal.

In The Knowledge Illusion, Sloman and Fernbach show that our intelligence resides not in individual brains but in the collective mind. To function, individuals rely not only on knowledge that is stored within our skulls but also on knowledge stored elsewhere, be it in our bodies, in the environment or especially in other people. Put together, human thought is incredibly impressive, but at its deepest level it never belongs to any individual alone.

And yet the mind supports the most sublime, incredible phenomenon of all: consciousness. How can any of this be possible with a mind that is so imperfect? This is one of the key challenges confronted in this book. The Knowledge Illusion ties together established scientific facts whilst also considering what the mind is for. Understanding why the mind is as it is, and what it is for, will show why we need to consider it as extending beyond our skulls; why we should think about 'the mind' as far more than an extension of the brain but as an emergence from multiple brains interacting. Simply put, individuals know relatively little, but the human hive that emerges when people work together knows a lot.
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